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Morphological Characteristics of Pronoun in Urdu and Spanish

Faizan Ahamad

Research Scholar,

Jawaharlal Nehru University

New Delhi, India.

 

Abstract: The present study is an attempt to understand the Morphological Characteristics of Pronoun in Urdu and Spanish through its similarities and differences. This comparative study attempts to highlight the levels of ease and difficulty faced by Urdu speakers in using the correct Spanish pronouns.

Keywords: Person, Gender, Number, Direct and indirect case.

Introduction: A pronoun is a part of speech that is used in place of a noun or a noun phrase. It refers to either a noun that has already been mentioned or a noun that does not need to be specifically named. The importance of its usage lies in the fact that it lessens the deformation of a text by replacing the frequent usage of nouns. Its usage with respect to gender is also crucial as it validates a person’s identity. If a person is referred to with the wrong pronoun, they can feel disrespected, invalidated, dismissed, alienated, or dysphoric. Therefore, considering these possibilities, the current study aims to highlight the correct usage of pronouns for gender and ways to bring an equal form of pronouns for each gender and number in Urdu and Spanish languages. In addition to being helpful for learners, this will also add to their level of expertise.

Pronouns in Urdu take two cases; direct and indirect, like nouns. Direct case is usually the subject of a verb. It is not followed by any postposition except for transitive verbs in the perfect tense where ‘ne’ is ascribed to the subject pronoun and an accusative particle ‘ko’ is added to the subject pronoun. In indirect case, it is usually followed by a postposition. In general, the addresses and locations as well as many grammatical functions in Urdu are shown by the postpositions.

Personal pronoun in direct case:

Nominative case: The nominative case marker can occur at all times in transitive and intransitive forms.  Personal pronouns in the nominative case are as following:

  Urdu Spanish Urdu Spanish
Singular Plural
1stperson Maiṅ Yo Ham Nosotros, Nosotras
2nd person informal Tū, Tum Tum Vosotros, Vosotras
2nd per. formal Āp Usted Āp Ustedes
3rdperson Yeh, Voh Él, Ella, Ello Yeh, Voh Ellos, Ellas

Personal pronouns in Urdu have different categories as: 1) The number, i.e. if the noun is singular or plural, 2) The degree of the familiarity and respect in the second and third person, 3) The distance: proximal and distal. They do not have the gender changes form and their information is often conveyed by the verb. While personal pronouns in Spanish have both gender and number changes form except for the first and second person in singular. Second person as well in formal case does not have gender variation.

The elements of pronouns in Spanish are very different from nouns and adjectives as: (a) there is a series of closed morphological systems, (b) most of these have morphemes of gender and number like nouns; some know neutral gender, (c) these act in the speech as nouns, nominal adjectives and adjectives or adverbs and work as primary, secondary or tertiary terms; some of these, however, work specifically in one particular function, (d) semantically, their meaning is not complete until not related to the linguistic or extralinguistic context of their usage.[1]

In Spanish, it is not necessary to mention the subject pronouns before the verb as these are integrated in conjugated verbs through which it becomes easy to identify them but it is difficult to identify their gender. We cannot recognize these unless accompanied by a verb. Further the gender classification of the first and second person singular is not possible. We can understand these through examples:

Maiṅ    jātā/jātī huṅ.                Tū        jā rahā/ jā rahī hai.

Yo           voy.                          Tú                    vas.

The above examples demonstrate that in Urdu the gender of the subject pronoun can be classified by the conjugated verb but this classification is not possible in Spanish and is not possible either by the use of subject pronouns.

The second person pronoun in Urdu consists of three forms: , tum, and āp. The use of is very intimate, tum is non-honorific and āp is honorific. is a unique personal pronoun and its use is very old and is common in daily communication. Tum is almost equal to the use of the English ‘you’, but makes it difficult to reveal the gender and number. Second person singular in Spanish does not have two different forms such as Urdu. It has only . Apparently of Urdu and of Spanish are very similar in pronunciation and in orthography as well. Second person plural in Spanish has two different forms; vosotros and vosotras for two genders. But Urdu has single form tum for both genders. Tum always takes a plural verb, even if there is only one referent. When it is applied to a male, it requires a plural noun complement (and an adjective, if applicable) in sentences, irrespective of there being one male or more. When females are addressed using tum, the noun complement is singular if only one person is being addressed and plural otherwise; that is, the complement reflects the actual number in case of female referents.[2] These differences can be explained through following examples:

Tum                 achche             ladke               ho.

Tú                    bueno              chico                eres.     (Tú eres chico bueno.)

Vosotros          buenos             chicos              sois.     (Vosotros sois chicos buenos.)

(Here the meaning can be ambiguous without context.)

Tum                 achhī                laṛkī                 ho.

Tú                    buena               chica                eres.     (Tú eres chica buena.)

Tum                 achchi              laṛkiyaṅ           ho.

Vosotras          buenas             chicas              sois.     (Vosotras sois chicas buenas.)

Urdu has a single form ‘āp’ in second person singular and plural in the formal case which is for both gender and number. Spanish on the other has two forms; usted for singular and ustedes for plural that are used for both genders but their verbs are conjugated according to the third personal pronoun. Sometimes ‘āp’ is used as third person as well (its explanation will follow).

Third person pronoun is used in a different way in the two languages. Urdu has only one form voh or yeh that is used together for both gender and number. In the earlier period, the pronoun voh used to be for the singular and the pronoun ve for the plural. Thus, it was easy to distinguish these for an Urdu speaker. But in contemporary times, it gets a bit difficult until a word log or sab is not added with yeh or voh. Spanish has different form for both gender and number in third person which are él/ella and ellos/ellas. Spanish also has a neutral subject pronoun in third person singular, that is, ello. It is used to refer to a context or situation only, and never to an animal or thing, and certainly not to the people. It is often used as an object pronoun, in sentences like ‘Estoy trabajando en ello’. Third person proximal form yeh in Urdu refers to él, ella and ellos/ellas as here to person or thing just mentioned, and the distal form voh refers to él, ella and ellos/ellas as there or over there. The most common form is وہ /vah/ which is used when the speaker does not intend to distinguish distance. The third person in Urdu consists of three degrees of familiarity but those are not like second person:

  1. Yeh and Voh with a singular verb are informal. For example:

Yeh/Voh          jā rahā hai.                   Yeh/Voh         jā rahī hai.

Él                      va.                             Ella                    va.

  1. Yeh and Voh with a plural verb (and with the singular referent) are formal and more polite. Like:

Yeh/Voh          jā rahe haiṅ.                 Yeh/Voh         jā rahī haiṅ.

Él                     va.                               Ella                  va.

  1. Āp is also used as a third person polite plural pronoun meaning él and ella. This is even more honorific than voh + plural verb, so is used to refer to a person to whom a high degree of respect is due (including educated religious people, especially the prophet Mohammad “peace be upon him”.[3] We take an example:

Āp                                            paighamber                  haiṅ.

Él (in the meaning of polite)       profeta                        es.   (Él es profeta.)

Use of log or sab as a plural specifier: In Urdu, for a direct case, it is very common to use an additional word log or sab with the subject pronoun to indicate plurality. In the indirect case, it takes the form logo used with all postpositions including ergative mark ne. But a Spanish subject pronoun in itself has different plural forms. As: Ham (log/sab) Nosotros/as, Tum (log/sab) Vosotros/as, Āp (log/sab) Ustedes and Yeh/Voh (log/sab) Ellos/Ellas. Ham (sab/log) jā  rahe haiṅ. We can say in Spanish; Nosotros vamos. It is not necessary to say nosotros todos.

Some personal pronouns in Urdu especially , tum etc. are sometimes omitted when we ask questions or respond during communication. It is only the verb that tells us the category of the person, the number, the gender and the degree of respect.[4] For instance:

Kya karo ge?                           ¿Qué harás tú (tum)?/ ¿Qué harás?

Kya karen ge?              ¿Qué hará usted (āp)?/ ¿Qué hará?

Kya kar rahā hai?                     ¿Qué haces tú (tū)?/ ¿Qué haces?

Kal Jauṅ gā.                             Yo (maiṅ) iré mañana. / Iré mañana.

In Urdu the subject pronouns are sometimes omitted in conversation. Those could be easily understood by the verb that conveys the meaning while in Spanish their use before a verb is optional as the verb conveys the meaning itself. Their use is like Arabic grammar. In the beginning, Spanish learners are encouraged to use these before a verb to gain a better understanding of the language. Once a learner gains expertise, their usage becomes optional unless in complicated situations where there is a chance of ambiguity for the readers and audiences.

Ergative and Accusative or Dative case:                               

  Urdu Español
Ergative Case Accusative or Dative Case 
S

I

N

G

U

L

A

R

  Pronoun + Pronon +kō Pronoun + ē ~ (h) ēi Personal Pronoun
1stpers. Maiṅ nē Mujh kō Mujhē Yo
2nd pers.

Informal

Tū nē ,Tum nē Tujh kō, Tum kō Tujhē, Tumhēiṅ
2nd pers. formal Āp nē Āp kō Usted
3rdpers. Is nē, Us nē Is kō, Us kō Isē, Usē Él/ Ella/ Ello
P

L

U

R

A

L

1st pers. Ham nē Ham kō Hamēiṅ Nosotros/as
2nd pers. Tum nē Tum kō Tumhēiṅ Vosotros/as
2nd pers. formal Āp nē Āp kō Ustedes
3rd pers. Inhōṅ nē, Unhōṅ nē In kō, Un kō Inhēiṅ, Unhēiṅ Ellos/Ellas

This table indicates that pronouns in Urdu in the ergative case have the same form as in the nominative case. To differentiate between these, the ergative mark ‘ne’ must be added after each pronoun. They are used as subject pronouns in sentences. Third person pronouns become slightly different from the nominative pronouns. Yeh and voh become us ne and is ne in singular and inhōṅ nē and unhōṅ nē in plural. Additionally, there is another form that is set to indicate plurality when added with in logoṅ ne and un logoṅ ne. For instance:

In logoṅ ne      yeh      kitāb    paṛh lī hai.

Ellos/ellas          este     libro      han leido. (Ellos/as han leido este libro.)

Pronouns in Dative or Accusative case used as subject pronouns are very different from those in the Nominative and Ergative cases. They consist of two different forms for each person. One with the postposition and another with the result of the apocopation process ē ~ (h) ēiṅ. As: mujh ko = mujhe, ham (sab/logoṅ) kō = hamēiṅ, Un (sab/logoṅ) kō = Unhēiṅ etc. But if there is no difference between them; we can use either of them. For example:

Un kō/Unhēiṅ              bhuk                lagi hai.

Ellos/ellas                  hambre    tienen. (Ellos/ellas tienen hambre.)

The second person in the formal case has only a single form with that is used as the subject pronoun in Accusative case. Pronouns in Urdu for Ergative and Accusative or Dative case do not have a gender change form. But Spanish possesses these except for the first and second person singular.

Personal pronoun in indirect case: (With verb)

Pronouns in Accusative case that are used as an object pronoun with verb are following:

Urdu Spanish Urdu Spanish
Singular Plural
1st pers. Mujh kō, Mujhē Me Ham kō, Hamēiṅ Nos
2nd pers.

informal

Tujh kō,Tujhē

Tum kō, Tumhēiṅ

Te Tum kō,Tumhēiṅ Os
2nd pers. formal Āp kō Lo/La (DO), Le/se (IO) Āp kō Los/Las (DO), Les/se(IO)
3rd  pers. Is kō, Us kō, Isē, Usē Lo/La (DO), Le/se (IO) In kō, Un kō, Inhēiṅ, Unhēiṅ, Los/Las (DO), Les/se(IO)

The above table shows that in Urdu the first, second and third person pronouns both in singular and plural have two different forms but the second person singular and plural in formal case has only a single form. In Spanish the first and second person (informal) pronouns both in singular and plural have only a single form. Therefore, for an Urdu speaker it becomes easy to learn these since they have an equal form for each. As: Ham kō/ Hamēi= Nos, Tujh kō/ Tujhe= Te etc. In Urdu the second person formal in both singular and plural has only a single form whereas Spanish has several. For an Urdu speaker it is possible to use it often with a preposition in Spanish such as a usted and a ustedes instead of the object pronouns; lo, la, le, los, las, les and se. Certainly an Urdu speaker would be confused in using the third person pronouns as Spanish possesses different forms such as; lo, la, los, las in direct object and le, les, se in indirect object. We can try to understand their uses through the following example:

  1. Voh us kō/usē bulātā hai.

Él       él  a /lo           llama. (Él llama a él. O Él lo llama)

  1. Tum us kō/usē     tuḥfah     dete ho.

Tú     él   a /le       el regalo   das.

Tú das el regalo a él. : El regalo = lo, a él = le

le lo das. (Le se convierte en ‘se’.). Thus, it becomes ‘Tú se lo das’.

These two examples explain the use of third person for direct and indirect objects. First one is for DO and second one is for IO. Le itself changes into se in the second example due to Spanish grammar rule.

(With postposition and preposition)

Urdu Español Urdu Español
Singular Plural
1st p. Mujh, Mere Mí, Migo Ham, Hamāre Nosotros/as
2nd p. informal Tujh, Tere

Tum, Tumhāre

Ti, Tigo Tum,

Tumhāre

Vosotros/as
2nd p. formal Āp Usted Āp Ustedes
3rdp. Is/Us Él, Ella, Ello In/Un Ellos, Ellas

Pronouns with preposition in Spanish except for the first person singular and second person singular in informal case are similar to the subject pronouns that do not change with preposition. Migo and tigo are used with preposition ‘con’ as; conmigo, contigo and the rest do not change with ‘con’ and we can say con nosotros, con él and con vosotros etc. and ti; another form of first and second person singular; do not change with different prepositions. We can simply say; de mí, para mí, a tí, sobre mí y en tí, etc. Also, these two pronouns do not have different genders while others do. Pronouns with postpositions in Urdu do not have the gender change form unlike in Spanish. First and second person in both singular and plural have two different forms for different postpositions as Spanish have a single form except for first and second person singular. They change with the postposition; keliye and kesāth (para and con, respectively). When these pronouns come before these postpositions, then by the process of apocopation, the postpositions lose ‘ke‘ and are followed by liye and sāth as; mere liye /para mí/, mere sāth/conmigo/etc.

Demonstrative pronoun: These pronouns in Spanish have written accents to differentiate themselves from demonstrative adjectives. Their endings provide us the gender and number information. There are three neutral demonstrative pronouns: esto, eso and aquello. These do not have accents and are referred to a general idea. For example:

Estamos perdidos y no tenemos gasolina.  → Esto no es bueno.

Demonstrative pronouns in Spanish are the following:

Éste, Ésta, Éstos, Éstas.          Ése, Ésa, Ésos, Ésas.              Aquél, Aquélla, Aquéllos, Aquéllas

Urdu has only two demonstrative pronouns: yeh and voh, are referred to a proximal and distal person and as well to an object. These have only one form for both gender and number and are similar to the subject pronouns. If they are followed by a postposition then their structure becomes different for singular and plural. As we can see the following table:

Singular Plural
Direct Indirect Direct Indirect
Yeh Is Yeh In
Voh Us Voh Un[5]

When these pronouns are compared in both languages, we find that Spanish has a single form for each gender and number. So, it becomes easy for an Urdu speaker to learn those pronouns in Spanish. As for direct case: yeh= éste, ésta, éstos, éstas and voh= ése, ésa, ésos, ésas or aquél, aquélla, aquéllos. For the indirect case: Is= Éste/a, Us= Ése/a or aquél/aquélla, In = Éstos/as and Un = Ésos/asor aquéllos/as.

Reflexive pronoun: When a verb whose subject acts upon it, a reflexive pronoun is used. Reflexive pronouns come according to the subject pronoun. In Spanish these pronouns are equal to object pronouns. Reflexive pronouns are me, te, se, nos, os and se which come before verbs. It is only the second person formal and third person pronoun ‘se’ that is very different from the object pronoun of second person formal and third person: lo, la, los and las. Urdu has only one in numbers as; apne āp or ḳhud[6], which is used for each person, gender and number. These pronouns in Spanish are never preceded by a preposition whereas in Urdu if they substitute for a person or personalize a thing, then these are followed by a postposition ‘ko’.

Apparently, it appears easy for an Urdu speaker to learn these in Spanish as it has a single form for each subject pronoun except for second person formal and third person singular and plural that is ‘se’. But their usage in sentence construction is not easy though. For the verbs which are reflexive in Spanish, it is necessary to use reflexive pronouns but for those not reflexive, it is difficult to carry an exact reflexive pronoun. In this case it is better to use mismo/mismos, misma/mismas and the expression por su cuenta instead of me, te, nos and os etc. for apne āp and ḳhud.[7] We can take some examples that would help us understand their usage:

  1. Voh subah sawere uthtā hai. Él se levanta de madrugada.
  1. Voh  ḳhud  kuch  nahī  kartā.             Él mismo no hace nada.
  2. Voh apne āp gayā thā.                        Él había ido por su propia cuenta.[8]

In the second and third example it is possible that an Urdu speaker could translate them as él no se hace nada and él se había ido. So, in this aspect it is necessary for an Urdu speaker to practice these kinds of phrases more for gaining a broader understanding and expertise.

Possessive personal pronoun: The possessive pronouns in Spanish are similar to the possessive adjectives, but these are normally used with the definite article. Each pronoun itself has four forms. These agree in terms of gender and number with the noun in the phrase they replace. These constitute a relationship between the object and the grammatical person. They also represent the genitive case. In these types of pronouns, what is the most important is that the gender and number agreement is made with the possessed object, not with the grammatical person who is the possessor. Possessive pronouns are following:

For one possessor→  Mío/a, Míos/as, Tuyo/a, Tuyos/as, Suyo/a, Suyos/as.

For multiple possessorsNuestro/a, Nuestros/as, Vuestro/a, Vuestros/as, Suyo/suya, Suyos/as.

In Urdu, these are actually adjectives in form and agree in gender, number and case with their nouns. These can be used either genitivally (as modifiers: my book /mi libro/) and predicatively (That book is mine. /Ese libro es mío/). Possessives are of two types formally: first person and second person intimate and non-honorific possessive pronouns are single, unique words, while in second person (honorific) and in the third person, the possession is expressed with a two-word phrase: oblique pronoun + postposition.[9]Those are following:

For one possessor→  Merā/ī, Hamārā/ī, Terā/ī, Tumhārā/ī, Āp kā/ī. Us kā/ī, and Un kā/ī.

For multiple possessors Mere/ī, Hamāre/ī, Tere/ī, Tumhāre/ī, Āp ke/ī, Us ke/ī, and Un ke/ī.

Going through the pronouns of two languages we find that possessive pronouns in Spanish have an individual form for each gender and number regarding the person in agreement with single and multiple possessors except for second person formal and third person singular and plural whose singular and plural forms are similar for both possessors. The possessive pronouns in Urdu have an individual form for each gender but not the number as demonstrated by the example of feminine pronoun that has a same form for each number whether singular or plural. For instance: merī as a singular/la míamerī as a plural/las mías, tumhārī as a singular/la tuyatumhārī as a plural/las tuyas etc. In other words, the feminine pronouns in Urdu do not have constituent ending of number such as in Spanish.

Relative Pronoun: The Royal Spanish Academy says: “the relative pronouns are que, cual, quien, cuyo”.[10]

  1. Marcos Marín says: “the forms of relative pronouns, properly said, are que, el cual, quien, cuyo, cuanto”.[11]

The Royal Spanish Academy in the later sketch includes cuanto also within the relative pronouns: “the pronouns inherited from Latin are que, quien, cual, cuyo y cuanto”.[12]

Relative pronouns in Spanish are; que, quien, quienes, el cual (la cual, los cuales, las cuales), el que (la que, los que, las que) and lo que etc. While in Urdu only ‘Jo’ is a single relative pronoun that has different form in two cases.

Direct                   Indirect             with ‘ne

Singular       Jo                                 Jis                    Jis ne

Plural           Jo                                 Jin                    Jinohṅ ne[13]

In Urdu, we don’t have as many pronouns as Spanish; we have only ‘Jo’ in the direct case so it would be difficult for an Urdu speaker to bring an equal form in Spanish for each pronoun. Further, unlike Urdu, Spanish does not have separate forms in the indirect case. In Spanish the relative pronoun ‘que’ is used with majority that has only a single form and it is invariable. Quien has only the numerical changes and cual also has the numerical changes but by the use of the article it can be distinguished at the gender level. Urdu only has the pronoun ‘jo’ which has neither generic nor numerical changes. Thus not being an individual form in Urdu for each relative pronoun in Spanish as possessives have them, there is a lot of possibility to confuse an Urdu speaker. In that case a lot of practice is needed for learning them in Spanish. As there are not the equal forms for each element of relative pronouns in Spanish both in direct and indirect cases; I am going to provide a list that will make it much easier for an Urdu speaker to learn them.

Direct

Singular                       Jo/jis ne = que, quien, cual

            Plural                          Jo/ jinohṅ ne = que, quienes, cuales

 

Indirect

Singular           Jis + postposition = preposition + (article) + que, cual, cuyo

Plural               Jin + postposition = preposition + (article) + que, cuales, cuyos.[14]

Interrogative pronoun: Quién/quiénes, cuál/cuáles, qué, cuánto/cuánta/cuántos/cuántas are interrogative pronouns that always have an accent but the relative pronouns do not have. Quién and cuál are variable pronouns and change to agree in number only with the noun they replace. For instance: ¿Quién (es) viene (n)? and ¿Cuál (es) de esta (s) pluma(s) prefieres? A preposition + quién refer to people and a preposition + qué refer to things. As: ¿De quién habla usted? and ¿De qué habla usted? Qué means ‘kyā’ when it precedes a verb it asks for a definition, description or explanation. As: ¿Qué hacen durante las vocaciones? When it precedes a noun, it means ‘kaunsā, kaun  sī’ etc. Such as: ¿Qué película quieres ver? In Urdu, there are only two interrogative pronouns: Kaun and Kyā. Kaun is for animate beings and Kyā is for inanimate beings. The following table will help us how to bring an equal form of these two pronouns in two languages.

Direct                      Indirect                                                   with ‘ne’

Singular       Kya/qué           Kis+postposition= Preposition+ qué               ———

Kaun/quién      Kis+postposition= Preposition + quién           Kis ne/quién

Plural           Kya/qué          Kin+postposition= Preposition+qué                ——–

Kaun/quiénes   Kin+postpositon= Preposition+quiénes          Kinhoṅ ne/quiénes[15]

The pronoun ‘Kin’ is not used as the subject but comes with a noun ‘logo’. For instance:

Kin logoṅ ne kahā? /¿Quiénes dijeron?/

Kaun sā, kaun sī, kaun se are also used as a pronoun. But the difference between kaun and kaun sā is that kaun sā is specific. It is used when there are many things and we just have to choose one of them. As:

Un me se kaun sā chahie?                    ¿Cuáles de ellos quiere?

Here you cannot just use kaun but you use kaun sā. It is used for both a person and a thing.[16]

Urdu has only two interrogative pronouns while Spanish has four interrogatives. Those of Urdu are invariable in the direct case but those of Spanish are variable except for qué. Such as quién becomes quiénes and cuál becomes cuáles etc. Urdu has only one question mark at the end of the sentence, while the Spanish language carries two; one is at the beginning of a sentence and another at the end of the sentence.

In Urdu sometimes the pronouns kya, kaun, kis, kin, etc. are used twice and are called Repeated Pronoun. It means ‘what (various) things or people?’ and takes a singular verb. That is not found in Spanish.[17] For example:  Dāwat me kaun kaun āyā?  ¿Quién vino en la fiesta?

Indefinite pronoun: Quilis and Hernandez say: “the indefinite pronouns are the pronouns that mark undetermined and their limits are not totally fixed”.[18]

Koī and kuch are indefinite pronouns in Urdu. Koī as a pronoun means ‘alguien’. If the sentence is negative, it means ‘nadie’. The form of koī in indirect case is kisī. For example: Kisī ke paas qalam hai. /¿Alguien tiene la pluma?/. Kisī is also the form used before ‘ne’. Kuch as a pronoun means ‘algo’. If the sentence is negative, it means ‘nada’. In indirect case it does not have any form.[19]

The most common indefinite pronouns of the two languages are: Todo /sarā/, toda /sarī/, todos /sare/ and todas /sarī/. Sab, tamām are also can be used for todo/a and todos/as but they do not change in gender and number. Uno and una /koī/, unos and unas /kuch or bʿāz or chand/. Otro /dusrā/, otra, dusrī/, otros /dusre/ and otras /dusrī/. Alguien /koī or fulaṅ/, nadie /koī nahī/, algo /kuch/, nada/kuch nahī/. Alguno/alguna/algunos/algunas/koī, kuch or bʿāz/. Ninguno/ninguna/ningunos/ningunas/koī nahī or kuch nahī/. Cualquiera /koī/. Mucho/mucha/muchos/muchas /bahut, kaʾī/. Poco /thoṛā/, poca /thoṛī/, pocos /thoṛe/ and pocas /thoṛī/. Varios/varias /bʿāz, kaʾī/.

In Spanish most of the pronouns have the gender and number change forms except for alguien, nadie, algo and nada whereas in Urdu most of the pronouns do not have gender and number change forms but remain the same. There are some pronouns thoṛā, dusrā and sarā that have both gender and number change forms and others do not have. We can change their structure according to Spanish pronouns for instance; poco= thoṛā, poca = thoṛīetc. But we cannot change others such as; ningún, ninguno/a, ningunos/as= koī nahī or kuch nahī etc.  Singular feminine form is used also for plural feminine as thoṛī is used for poca and as well for pocas in Urdu. Some pronouns are very different from each other in orthography as; kuch, bʿāz and chand but they are similar in meaning and anyone of these can be used for algo, unos/as, alguno/a, algunos/as etc. as they also are in Spanish having the same meaning but are different from each other at an orthography level.

Conclusion: After analysing the use of pronouns in both Urdu and Spanish, we can identify both differences between two languages and similarities. We have seen that both languages mostly have an equal form of pronouns for gender and number but sometimes one or the other language does not possess them. In that case we tried to provide a bridge between the two languages, so that Urdu speakers are not faced with any kind of problem in learning. Thus, this study based on a morphological analysis between two languages of different continents not only provides us with many advantages but also reduces the different problems of interference between a mother tongue and a foreign language.

 

Refrences:

[1]Franch, Juan Alcina and José Manuel Blecua as quoted in Gadre, Vasant Ganesh. (1996). Estructuras gramaticales de hindi y español. P. 85.

[2]David, Anne et al. (2009). Urdu Morphology. USA: University of Maryland. P. 70.

[3]Schmidt, Ruth Laila. (1999). Urdu: An Essential Grammar. Norway: University of Oslo. P. 18.

[4]Ibid. P.No.19.

[5]Gargesh, Ravin y ChanderShekahar. (2001). Introductory Grammar of Urdu. New Delhi: NationalCouncil For Promotion Of Urdu Language. P. 49-51

[6]Ibid. P. 52-53.

[7]Gadre, VasantGanesh. (1996). Estructuras gramaticales de hindi y español. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional. P. 91.

[8]Ibid.

[9]Op. cit. 2. P. 72.

[10] Real Academia Española as quoted in Gadre, VasantGanesh. (1996). Estructuras gramaticales de hindi y español. P. 99.

[11]F. Marcos Marín as quoted in Ibid.

[12] Op. cit. 7. P. 100.

[13]Op. cit. 2.P. 77.

[14]Op. cit. 7.P. 100-101.

[15]Op. cit. 3. P. 26-27.

[16]Abd-ul- Haq, Molvi. (2014). Qawaed – e – Urdu. New Delhi: AnjumanTaraqqui Urdu (Hind). P. 92-93.

[17]Op. cit. 12.P. 30-31.

[18]Quilis y Hernández as quoted  in Gadre, VasantGanesh. (1996). Estructuras gramaticales de hindi y español.

[19] Op. cit. 3.P. 28-29.

Bibliography:

  1. Abd-ul- Haq, Molvi. (2014). Qawaed – e – Urdu. New Delhi: AnjumanTaraqqui Urdu (Hind).
  2. Aziz-ur-Rahaman, Prof. (2017). Teach Yourself Urdu In 2 Months. Delhi: Al Hasanat.
  3. Aragonés, Luis y Ramón Palencis. (2006). Gramática de uso del español: teoría y práctica con solucionario A1-B2. Madrid: HUERTAS I.G., S.A. Fuenlabrada.
  4. David, Anne e tal. (2009). Urdu Morphology. USA: University of Maryland.
  5. Faruqui, Shakeel Akhtar. (1992). Asan Urdu. New Delhi: Maktaba Jamia Limited.
  6. Gadre, VasantGanesh. (1996). Estructuras gramaticales de hindi y español. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional.
  7. Gargesh, Ravinder y Chander Shekhar. (2001). Introductory Grammar of Urdu. New Delhi:National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language.
  8. Greenfield, Eric V. (1972). Spanish Grammar. New York: Barnes & Noble Books.
  9. Humayoun, Muhammad. (2006). Urdu Morphology, Orthography and Lexicon Extraction.Sweden: Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers University of Technologyand Goteborg University.
  10. Kattán-Ibarra, Juan y Christopher J. Pountain.(2005). Modern Spanish Grammar. UK: Taylor & Francis e- Library.
  11. Lobato, Jesús Sánchez y Nieves García Fernández (2000): Nuevo español 2000. S.A.: Sociedad General Española de Librería.
  12. Sabzwari, Dr. Shauqat. (1982). Urdu Qawaid. Karachi: MaktabaUslub.
  13. Sánchez, Myriam Elisa Torres y Laura Benito Herráiz (2007).Hispania@nivel.uno. New Delhi: Instituto Hispania Publishing House.
  14. Schmidt, Ruth Laila. (1999). Urdu: An Essential Grammar. Norway: University of Oslo.
  15. Siddiqui, Shafee Ahmad. (2013). Urdu ZabanwaQawaed: Part 1. New Delhi: Faiza Publication.
  16. Stein, Gail y Ceciekraynak.(2010). Spanish Essential for Dommies. Canada: Wiley Publishing,Inc.
  17. Borobio, Virgilio (2014). ELE actual: A1. En línea: http://www.sm-ele.com
  18. Durrani, Nadir. “System for Grammatical relations in Urdu”.

https://alt.qcri.org/~ndurrani/pubs/system_grammatical_relations.pdf

 

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